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Civil War Monuments

Brattleboro Camps (1906)

Brattleboro Memorial

On the grounds of what was Camp Bradley (later Camp Holbrook), currently adjacent to the athletic fields at Brattleboro High School, a solid granite monolith stands; the front has two bronze tablets depicting soldiers, one apparently newly uniformed and headed out for war, and the other, with a head-wound, and apparently returning from war; the reverse a bronze tablet with the following on the obverse of the stone:

A.D. 1861-65
IN THE 4TH, 8TH, 9TH, 10TH, 11TH, 12TH, 13TH, 14TH,
A.D. 1906.

"Military Hospital Monument," unknown, 1906, bronze (town)

"Civil War Monument," C. W. Mosman, 1887, bronze (town)

Brattleboro, September, 1906 - A monument of enduring granite now stands a silent sentinel to mark the field in Brattleboro which was the rendezvous of the Vermont troops during the civil war and which was the site of a government hospital during a part of that great struggle. It was dedicated Wednesday afternoon, and the dedicatory exercises form an important chapter in the history of Brattleboro, as will be seen by the report of the proceedings which is given herewith in detail. In connection with the event the annual reunion of the Windham County Veterans association was held, which gave to the occasion a two-fold interest. About 1,200 people attended the exercise, to which an added dignity was given by the presence of Gov. Charles J. Bell and members of his staff in uniform.

The field which formerly was the camp ground "Camp Governor Holbrook," is now the Valley Fair ground. Members of the Veterans' association and visitors assembled there shortly before noon, and were served dinner in the large dining hall under the grand stand. Between 400 and 500 people partook of coffee, bake beans and brown bread, which was provided by the comrades and members of the Woman's Relief corps, and the hall was the scene of much merriment and activity.

After dinner the company reunions were held in different parts of the grand stand. The association of Companies E and G, 11th Vermont regiment, elected these officers: President, Albert Patch of Boston; vice-presidents, Henry J. Allen and John Hunt of Brattleboro, F. E. Ray of Wilmington and Henry Bond of Chester; secretary and treasurer, H. A. Carpenter of Newfane. It was voted to hold the next meeting at the time and place of the next meeting of the Veterans' association. The members of Company E present were George W. Parsons and H. A. Carpenter of Newfane, Gilbert McClure of Guilford, L. A. Lamson of Hopedale, Mass., John Hunt of Brattleboro and Barna Phelps of West Brattleboro. Members of Company G present were Henry Allen of Brattleboro, Emery Howard of Newfane, H. A. Bond of Chester, Mason Howard of Jamaica, D. B. Goddard of South Londonderry, G. W. Johnson of Vernon, Thomas Ashwell of Westminster, and Samuel Daggett of Bellows Falls.

Company I, 4th Vermont regiment, elected these officers: President, W. H. Miles of Townshend; vice president, Charles Dunklee of Greenfield, Mass.; secretary and treasurer, F. H. Niles of Halifax; executive committee, Francis J. Hosmer of Greenfield, Ahaz P. Pike of Jacksonville and George C. Cooley of Williamsville; historian, Francis J. Hosmer. It was voted to meet next year "by ourselves" in Brattleboro during the full of the moon in August, the date to be fixed by the executive committee. All the officer elected were present, also Levi M. Tucker of Greenfield, Charles Allen of Baldwinsville, Mass., Charles W. Ingram of East Dover, Sylvester E. Rawson of Jamaica, Ausemus Warren of Jacksonville and Royal M. Austin of Westminster.

Seven members attended the reunion of Company F, 4th Vermont regiment, and elected these officers: President, Col. H. E. Taylor of Brattleboro; vice-president, John W. Graves of Hartford, Conn.; secretary and treasurer, H. W. Hutchins of Bellows Falls. The date and place of the next meeting was left for the president to decide upon. Besides the officers names there were present Roscoe Fisher, Frank Stockwell and I. E. Allen, all of Brattleboro, and Celon J. Ball of Acworth, N.H.

When the company reunions were over Gen. George H. Bond, marshal for the dedicatory exercises, called to the veterans to "fall in" and march to the monument, located toward the north end of the enclosure within the race track, which was done, the proceedings of the Veterans' association being suspended temporarily. The veterans formed a hollow square around the monument, the two large faces of which were hidden from view by the Stars and Strips. While this was being done the First Regiment band arrived and played "Marching Through Georgia."

A company of school girls dressed in white and carrying handsome bouquets took positions near the monument, while surrounding it was the guard of honor, consisting of Charles C. Miller, Henry J. Allen, James P. elmer, Roscoe Fisher, George E. Selleck, Peter S. chase, Caleb P. Nash, Wells C. stone, Samuel S. Hunt, John M. Joy, George D. Odell, Harry Rowe, Cyrus Ramsdell, William H. Tyler, Sanford A. Smith and Fred T. Steward. At about 2 o'clock Governor Bell and staff and ladies arrived and Dr. Henry D. Holton, president of the day, Governor Bell, Congressman Kittredge Haskins, orator of the day, and Rev. George H. Lawson occupied chairs on a platform which had been erected a short distance from the memorial. A bugle call was given by Carl Leitsinger, a prayer of invocation was offered by Rev.. Mr. Lamson and the band played "America," after which Dr. Holton gave the following address of welcome.

Dr. Holton's Address.

"The various patriotic organizations of Brattleboro something over a year ago met in joint committee to consider the placing of an appropriate marker upon this historic ground. As a result of their labors we welcome you most cordially to the exercise of this occasion made possible by the co-operation of the various patriotic citizens of the state, who have contributed toward the necessary expenses incurred. The granite block is from Dummerston, the inscription on the bronze tablet is from the pen of the Hon. G. G. Benedict, the historian of Vermont in the Civil war. The bronze figures--mustered in and mustered out--were designed by a citizen of Brattleboro, and the drawing for the model was also by a resident artist. This plain is forever memorable by reason of being where most than ten thousand loyal patriot sons of Vermont were mustered into the national service and went forth to give their lives if necessary to preserve the Union.

"It is with particular pleasure that we recognize so many veterans of the conflict, who after so many years are able to march on the "Old Camp Ground." god bless you and keep you many more years. This monument is erected to mark the epoch in your lives, when your being was dominated by patriotic love of country and a fixed determination to maintain a government where every person should enjoy the greatest freedom compatible with the rights of every other person. But not alone to you who survived the perils of the camp, and shock of battle but to the comrades who in camp or battle or prison pen laid down their lives to maintain these principles. Together, you received from your fathers a great trust, to maintain unsullied "Old Glory," the emblem of freedom. This you did most nobly even in washing away of the blot of slavery and welding the various states into on strong Nation. May the generations yet to come maintain with equal patriotism and purity the enlarged trust you have imposed upon them."

Following a potpourri of national airs by the band the marker was unveiled by Miss Margaret E. Root, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. W. F. Root of Brattleboro. The flag was attached to a flag pole standing close beside the marker, and as it was raised aloft three hearty cheers were given in response to the call of the marshal. the next number on the program was a fife and drum salute by C. E. Sturges, H. E. Meacham, W. F. Forbush and H. A. Reynolds, members of Sedgwick post. Mr. Sturges saw service in Company F, 6th Connecticut Volunteers, Mr. Meacham in Company H, 7th Vermont Volunteers, Mr. Forbush in Company I, 8th Vermont Volunteers, and Mr. Reynolds in Company I, 8th Vermont volunteers, and Company E 11th Vermont Volunteers. The program at the marker closed with the fife and drum salute, and immediately the band played Reeves's "Centennial March," leading the way to the grand stand, where the rest of the exercises were held.

Seated on a platform directly in front of the grand stand were Dr. Holton, Congressman Haskins, Gov. Bell, James F. Hooker, Rev. E. Q. S. Osgood and John O. spring of Bellows Falls, president of the Veterans' association. With felicitous introductory remarks Dr. Holton presented Congressman Haskins, who made the dedicatory speech, which is given herewith in full:

Congressman Haskins's Address.

Mr. President, Comrades of the War of the Rebellion, Ladies and Gentlemen:

Places which at some period of departed time were of historic interest to the generation of men and women then living, although marked, as they may have been, by lofty and imposing symbols, yet unless bearing upon their face some enduring record to perpetuate the events that called them into being, in process of time become wholly lost to memory.

The great pyramids cover the dust of once mighty potentates whose very names were long since forgotten. The solemn Sphynx still looks out over the vast plains of Egypt, but why it was reared or what it commemorates none can tell. It is written of Moses-God's chosen lawgiver-that no man knoweth of his sepulchre; and seven different cities of Greece claim the honor of having been the birthplace of the immortal Homer.

Today through the efforts and liberality of patriotic men and women were dedicated a monument to perpetuate the remembrance that from 1861 to 1865 the green sod of this broad plain resounded to the tramp of feet of more then fifteen thousand, of the young men of our Green Mountain state, who, with uplifted hand were here sworn in for freedom, for their country and for God; and also it is reared here to commemorate the lives, the brave deeds, and the sacrifices of as brave men as ever faced danger upon the battlefield. the true significance of the memorial we here dedicate shall never be forgotten. This silent granite boulder utters no sound, it tells no tale, but the imperishable bronze imbedded in its sides, though mute of lip, speaks eloquent lessons in patriotism and love of country, so simple that prattling children may interpret them; so profound as to engage the mature thought of manhood. This unpretentious monument will go down to other ages, not dumb like the huge pyramids or the Sphynx, conveying no message-a mighty interrogation mark after an infinite pause. Its meaning will be more plain and eloquent than the language of oratory. It will for all time be invested with that it was designed to commemorate--the place, and the glory of the deeds of the men who were members of the several organizations written upon the bronzed scroll. Here, in the long years before us, will come the spirit of the then mighty present kneeling at the shrine of the heroic past to breathe upon its sacred embers. Then rising salute the future as she comes clad in the bright rays of morning and enjoins upon her the fidelity of the vestal goddess in watching the patriotic flame that it may not go out; but
"That downward as from son to son it goes
By shifting bosoms more intensely glow."

Then let us dedicate this monument not only to commemorate this historical locality and the brave men who gave up all for their country's weal, but as an installment on that debt of gratitude that a hundred grateful generations cannot fully pay. Dedicate it with all its wealth of meaning t the soldiers whose graves we yearly decorate with the sweetest flowers of the maiden month of May. Dedicate it to the living as a sacred admonition to maintain the republic that has cost the whole world so much.. Dedicate it to the countless multitudes who are crowding toward us, but whose feet have not yet touched the shores of time. Dedicate it as a sponsor for human rights and a protest against human wrongs in every nation and in every clime. An hundred years, yea many hundred years will pass away and other assemblages may gather here; among the, possibly will be our descendants, but so far removed that we will be hardly remembered. But that assemblage standing where we stand today, may commune with us, though long since passed away, through this patient sentinel, and he made to feel the thrill and catch the heart-beat of all those present on this occasion.

We consecrate and leave this faithful sentry to enter upon its ceaseless vigil. Through summer's heat and winter's snow, while youth takes on the wrinkles of old age, it shall stand here as a suggestive emblem of our constancy to the Union of all the states, and to the old flag. One by one the veteran soldiers now living will be relieved from duty and pass on to the silent camping ground where sleep those other comrades who have gone before, while this monument shall remain unmoved and unaffected. Forever may it stand to watch the far eastern horizon for the rising of the sun over yonder mountain and the ushering in of that glorious day, sure to dawn, when the influence of this republic will prevail against czars and kings, and equal rights shall be fully accorded to all men.

In 1860 the population of Vermont was 315,098. The report of our adjutant general credits Vermont with having furnished during the war of the rebellion 34,235 men. The records of the war department at Washington credit us with 1004 additional men, who probably enlisted in other than our state organizations, and were placed to the credit of Vermont. Thus giving us a total of 35, 242 men standing to our credit, and leaving us with a surplus of over 2500 more men than the quota of troops we were required to furnish.

The first Vermont soldiers to occupy these grounds were the First regiment who enlisted for three months under the first call of the President, mustered in at Rutland May 8, 1861, and arrived here on their return home Aug. 7, 1861, and were mustered out on the 15th and 16th of the same month. The next regiment encamped here was the Fourth, which was mustered into service Sept. 20, 1861 and started for Washington the next day. this regiment was attached to the "old brigade" and was engaged in 36 battles. It lost during its term of service 423 men, killed in action or died of wounds and disease. The next was the Eighth regiment and the First light battery, mustered into service Feb. 18, 1862. The Eighth participated in 13 engagements with the enemy and lost 345 men killed in action or died of wounds or disease. The battery was engaged in five battles and its casualties were 6 men, killed or died of wounds and disease. Then came the Ninth regiment, mustered July 9, 1862, was in five engagements and lost 298 men. This regiment has the proud distinction of being the first to enter the city of Richmond, Va., April 3, 1865, outstripping all others in their race to reach the burning city which had been abandoned the night before. Then follows the Tenth regiment which was mustered in Sept. 4, 1862, participated in fourteen engagements and lost 236 men. The next was the Eleventh regiment, mustered in to service Sept. 1, 1862., which was engaged in twelve battles and lost during its term of service 539 men. Then came the five regiments enlisted for nine months each and which composed the Second Vermont brigade. The Twelfth, mustered in Oct. 4, 1862, was in two engagements and lost 63 men. The Thirteenth, which was mustered in Oct. 10, 1862, was engaged with the enemy twice and lost 72 men. The Fourteenth, mustered into service Oct. 21, 1862, was in two engagements and lost 68 men. The Fifteenth, mustered Oct. 22, 1862, took a hand in three engagements and lost during its term of service 79 men. The last was the Sixteenth, which went into camp here Oct. 9, 1862, was mustered on oct. 22, left for the front Oct. 24, 1862, was in three engagements and lost in killed and died of wounds and disease 73 men. These last five regiments were at the battle of Gettysburg, Pa., July 1, 2, and 3, 1863, and the Thirteenth, Fourteenth and Sixteenth met the splendid charge of Generals Pickett and Wilcox, the flower of the Confederate army that had been sent forward to break the Union centre, and repulsed them with terrible slaughter, gathering in as prisoners almost every surviving man of the charging column. This braveresistance of the Confederate charge by the young men of Vermont turned the tide of battle, broke the backbone of the rebellion and was the beginning of the successful ending of the war waged on the part of the South for the dismemberment of the Union, and by the general government for its preservation and perpetuation in future generations.

The bronze table on yonder granite boulder states that on these grounds were mustered into the United States service 10,200 men. That statement is correct as far as it goes. The organizations mentioned as originally mustered were composed of that number; but there were subsequently recruited, mustered in and sent forward from here 3656 additional men, who were attached to those several organizations named, making at total of 13,656. Further than this, in 1863 Brattleboro became the general rendezvous of military operations within the state and large numbers of recruits were assembled here, from time to time until the close of the war, mustered into service and sent forward to fill up the ranks of our several regiments in the field-the exact number may never be known.

The tables attached to the monument states that 4666 men were also mustered out of service here. This is correct as having reference to the number mustered out in organizations upon their return from the war, and upon expiration of their terms of service. In addition therefor, not included in the foregoing, a large number were discharged and regularly mustered out of service at the hospital by reason of wounds and other disabilities which rendered them unfit for further service in the field, of which number we have no authentic record.

In March, 1862, the United States authorities, after due examination and investigation with reference to the natural healthfulness of our climate and the purity of the war that flowed from our mountain springs, caused to be established and erected upon these grounds a general hospital which was thoroughly officered and equipped for the treatment of the sick and wounded. As originally constructed it would easily accommodate 600 men. In the summer of 1864, following the advance of our army under General Grant towards Richmond, there were sent here sick and wounded soldiers so that at one time there were 1100 patients under treatment. This enormous over-flow, beyond the capacity of the hospital proper, were cared for under large tents constructed for hospital purposes. At one time, soldiers of every loyal state in the Union were inmates of this hospital. Between the date of its establishment and 1865 over 4500 sick and wounded soldiers received treatment within its walls and of this large number but 95 died. Twenty-one of these were buried in the "Soldiers' lot" purchases and now owned by the government in yonder Prospect HIll cemetery; the remains of two have since been removed by friends or relatives, and nineteen now remain whose graves are marked by suitable marble headstones, representing many different states.

Vermont lost during the war in killed and died from wounds and disease 5224 men. Of the killed in battle the proportionate loss of Vermont was greater than any other loyal state except Michigan--and that state, like every other northern state, had many native Vermonters among its troops. And Vermont expended for war purposes nearly #10,000,000 of which amount the several towns expended nearly five and one-quarter million dollars without any hope or expectation of reimbursement by the general government.

In mentioning these various Vermont organizations, and the number of deadly engagements in which they, severally, participated, I have endeavored to avoid mentioning any man by name. The officer who held the highest rank, down along the file of men to the beardless boy who beat the drum, were all brave, loyal men who loved their country and its flag; no sacrifice too great for them to make--they did their duty each and every one; and to make mention of the name of this or that one might well be regarded, at least by some, as an invidious distinction, which, in a presence like that congregated here, ought not to be made.

Right here as on all occasions of this kind the question naturally suggest itself--Why all this sacrifice in blood and treasure? Were the results wrought out worthy of these hecatombs of human lives which were so freely offered in every town and city throughout the land? I cannot stop to discuss the origin and cause of that rebellion. It is familiar to nearly everyone here present. It is sufficient to say that the great vital principle involved was one of sovereignty. Whether the power and sovereignty of the Nation was greater than that of th states. Of the arch-conspirators, Alexander H. Stephens, afterwards vice-president of the so-called Confederacy, in November, 1860, said in speaking of the heritage our fathers had handed down to us, that "It is the most beneficent government of which history gives us any account." And Jefferson Davis a few months before he withdrew from the United States Senate to accept the office of president of the confederacy, speaking from his seat in that body declared it to be "The best government ever instituted by man, unexceptionably administered, and under which the people have been prosperous beyond comparison with any other people whose career has been recorded in history."

Edward Everett has told us that in the winter of 1860-61, within his own personal knowledge, it having, in substance, been admitted to him by one of the most influential leaders of secession, that, because for the first time since the adoption of the constitution a President had been elected without any of the votes of the South, they were to assert the authority and right of the states to secede from the Federal Union, occupy the national capital and seize the public archives of the government by a bold and sudden movement on the 4th of March, 1861. Their purpose becoming known, this foul conspiracy was frustrated through the forethought and preparation made by that veteran chief, Gen. Winfield Scott, then in command of our slender military force which he mobilized in and about the capital.

To destroy "the best government ever instituted by man" and under which the people had "been prosperous beyond comparison with any other people" as stated by Mr. Davis, they fired upon their country's flag, forced upon the general government a war which, for the magnitude of its proportions and the extent of its field of operations, has no parallel in history. Imagine for a moment what would have been our condition today had we failed of success; had we not pressed the chalice of bloody war to the lips of our misguided brethren and compelled them to drink out of it to its bitter dregs. Time will not permit me to picture to you the direful effects that would have resulted in two hostile governments within the territory carved out by our fathers for a Union of states one and inseparable. The strength and influence of the one would have been annihilated in the two, and would have afforded foreign powers the opportunity and temptation to further disintegrate both. The war was inevitable and absolutely necessary in order that those questions which had been found all too hard for adjustment in our civil experience and had divided the different sections of the country for more than 60 years might be settled for all time. and so it was that amid the roar and carnage of battle and the widespread devastations of war was sealed into perpetual life the just powers of the general government under the Constitution--the sovereignty of unity over its several and constituent parts, and the oneness and indestructibility of American nationality, which never would and never could have been won in peace.

That war taught this country to trust in its own resources, and not to lean with too great confidence upon the friendship of any foreign power. It has taught us to rely on the strong right arm and the intelligence, the sense of honor and loyalty of the great mass of our citizenship. It gave us back our country in its entirety; and now after forty-one years the broad chasm that once separated the two sections has been filled and sodded over, and there is no longer a north or south, no east nor west, but all are one, proud of their heritage and of their common country.

Our recent war with Spain has demonstrated the loyalty to country and our beautiful flag of those who whore the gray equally with those who wore the blue in that great struggle fought for the nation's integrity, supremacy and honor. While differing in many things, as political parties always have and always will, with reference to governmental politics, I firmly believe that those who fought against the government on more than two thousand battlefields, and their sons, are today as loyal to the Union and as jealous of their country's honor as are those who fought with us.

To you, my comrades, occasions of this kind bring to your memory and sad recollections, which will not down. Nor should they for they are among the most treasured of your memories. They tell you of the height and depth, and length and breadth of what our reunited country is worth. Costly as has been its preservation to you and yours, you feel that it is worth the sacrifice. No veteran soldier, of either army, would today wish back the blood he shed, or the robust health which was shattered, or his log or arm. No father, mother or wife would wish to received back the loved one to live and health, if the restoration of any or all of these must brink back with it a divided and ruined country. The blessed comfort that comes to all is the form and unalterable conviction that the dead did not die in vain, and that those who now drag out lives of infirmity and distress are not suffering for naught. The blessed reward which we daily enjoy is the fairest land on earth, the happiest most prosperous people in all the world, and a certain future for our country and our people, which seems now to have no limit to its wondrous growth.

We have been making history rapidly in the past few years. We have been brought face to face with complex problems, with momentous, far-reaching questions in our national life. We have been thrown out into the great arena of nations by a power not our own. Our greatness and dominion far exceed all our brightest dreams of the past. Today it can be said of us as it is said of the British empire, that "The sun never sets upon our flag, and our morning drum beat is heard around the world." While the rays of the setting sun shine on our flag in the distant islands of the sea, it is greeted by the morning sun as it floats from our mountain peaks and along the shores of the Atlantic. How truly wonderful has been our nation's growth, and history. I have faith to believe that we shall continue in the future, as in the past, equal to our opportunities and worthy the grand and noble destiny that awaits us. We have but to remember that it is the primal duty of the people of this country never to forget, "That man is more than nations, that wisdom is more than glory, that virtue is more than dominion of the sea, and that justice is the supreme good."

"Lord, God of hosts, be with us yet,
Lest we forget, lest we forget."

Hoping ever and praying always, I give in conclusion and leave with you this sentiment:

"And so I give you all the ship of state,
Freedom's last venture in her priceless freight,
God speed her, keep her, bless her, while she steers
Amid the breakers of unsounded years.
Lead her through danger's paths with even keel
And guide the honest hand that holds the wheel."

//portion missing here//

the "Fra Diavolo??" overture by the band.

Gov. Holbrook's message expressed regret at inability to be present, and reviewed matters of great historical interest in which the Governor had a part. It told of his suggestions to President Lincoln that 500,000 additional men be called out, after the Union reverses in Virginia, when the whole North was in a state of despondency. Acting upon Gov. Holbrook's suggestion, President Lincoln called for 300,000 three-year men and later 30,000 nine-months' men. the latter were to be drafted, but at Gov. Holbrook's request vermont was allowed to raise her full quota by volunteer enlistment. Much of the message related to the establishment of military hospitals in this state, which the Governor referred to as one of the "crowning acts of Vermont." Tributes were paid to the Vermont soldiers and to the women of the state.

Gov. Bell and Other Speakers.

Governor Bell was introduced by the president after "Tenting on the Old Camp Ground" had been sung by a quartet, consisting of Miss Alice D. butterfield, Mrs. W. H. Bond, George M. Clay and Alfred S. Thompson. Gov. Bell said it was a glorious thing to die for one's country and that we are all proud to be citizens of so glorious a country as this. He referred to the great cost which this nation had borne to attain its present greatness and said that the greater the nation's cost in lives and treasure the greater was its value. He said that Vermont always was in the front, the agricultural exhibitions held each year on the old camp ground going to show this in one particular. In the course of his remarks Gov. Bell said that he was one of those who took the oath on the old camp ground in Brattleboro.

At this point the meeting was placed in charge of President Spring, of the Veterans' association, and the business of the association then was taken up in public. These officers were elected: President, Col A. B. Franklin of Townshend; vice president, H. A. Dudley of Londonderry; secretary and treasurer, C. M. Russell of Wilmington; executive committee, L. W. Bush of Brookline and M. R. Pratt and L. W. Rand of Newfane. The association accepted an invitation from Newfane to meet in that town next year.

Responding to invitations from President Spring brief campfire reminisces were given by Col. H. E. Taylor, Col. A. B. Franklin and L. W. bush. The exercises of the day closed with the benediction by Rev. Mr. Osgood.

The Location and Uses of the Various Buildings.

Our illustrations showing the hospital buildings and the barracks are from photographs taken by C. L. Howe. The entrance to the camp ground was where the present entrance to the Valley Fair grounds is. The building at the extreme right was the chaplain's house, and it stood nearly where the agricultural products building now is. The next building was the surgeon's headquarters, with cook houses to the rear, and a ward adjoining on the south.

Brattleboro Hospital site

This building was nearly where the floral hall now is. From this point the buildings ran in a straight line nearly due south. In the centre was the dispensary building with wards adjoining. The arrangement of the hospital buildings proper, it will bee seen, was on three sides of a hollow square. In front of the dispensary building was a grass plat, and a fence extended along the front of all the buildings with a wide belt of green turf between the buildings and the fence. The neatly kept walks were of gravel. Water was supplied from the Bardwell brook, pumping by a water wheel from the brook into a tank at the south end of the buildings. The chapel stood in the rear of the house at the officer of the guard.

When the room in the hospital buildings became insufficient, 40 hospital tents were erected, accommodating 12 men each. Cases of contagious disease were isolated in tents erected in the edge of the pines opposite the present grand stand, beyond the race track.

The lower illustration shows the barracks erected for the use of the troops before they were sent to the front. These buildings stood in the extreme east of the camp ground, on the brow of the hill overlooking South Main street.

Brattleboro Camp Site

There were 60 rods or more in the rear and east of the present line of horse paddocks. As originally built they accommodated 2,000 men, but in the winder of 1862-63, after the government hospital was established, some of the barracks were moved over to the other side of the grounds and fitted up for hospital purposes. The tents in front were the guard tents, wit the officers' tent at the right.

The wide space between these two lines of building, including the present race track enclosure, was all open, and was used for drill and parade purposes.

Dr. E. E. Phelps, before the war a professor in the Dartmouth College medical school, was the surgeon in charge of the hospital. Col. William Austine was the mustering in officer.

We are indebted for these details of descriptions to Comrade George E. Greene of Brattleboro, who was the chief hospital steward during nearly the whole period of the war. Mr. Greene enlisted in the 16th Vermont, expecting to go to the front, but having some knowledge of medicine and of the care of the sick, he attracted the favorable attention of Dr. Phelps, who, acting on his own initiative, secured Mr. Greene's discharge as a volunteer and caused his appointment as a steward in the regular army.

The Granite Marker.

The memorial marker is a block of West Dummerston granite in the rough. It was erected through the efforts of the Daughters of the American Revolution, Sons of the Revolution, United States Daughters of 1812, Grand Army veterans, Woman's Relief corps and Sons of Veterans, principally in Brattleboro, and by citizens in various parts of the state, something over $1000 being raised for that purpose. Plans for its erections were begun about three years ago. it is surrounded by a substantial iron fence with stone posts. The block is eight and a half feet in height, five feet wide, three and a half feet thick and weights about 20 tons. On one side are two bronze tablets each bearing in relief the figure of a soldier, one inscribed "Mustered In," and the other inscribed "Mustered Out." On the other side is one large tablet in bronze with this inscription:

Brattleboro Memorial

Upon this ground during the war for the Union A. D. 1861-65, ten thousand two hundred volunteers in the 4th, 8th, 9th, 10th, 11th, 12th, 13th, 14th, 15h, and 16th Vermont regiments and the 1st Vermont light battery encamped and were mustered into the Union service before departing for the field. Upon this ground also four thousand six hundred and sixty six veterans, survivors of the great struggle, were successively mustered out. In commemoration of their patriotic devotion this monument was erected by the citizens of Vermont A. D. 1906.

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